Cardiology

Digoxin

General Digoxin is an old drug, perhaps ancient by some standards. It is a purified cardiac glycoside extracted from the purple foxglove (digitalis purpurea) plant. Trade names for digoxin include Lanoxin, Digitek, and Lanoxicaps. It is also a generic medication. Digoxin has been used in patients with atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure for decades…

Aldosterone Receptor Antagonists

General Aldosterone Aldosterone is a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland (zona glomerulosa). Aldosterone was first identified by Simpson and Tait approximately 5 decades ago. Aldosterone was classified as a mineralocorticoid hormone as it was found to play a major role in sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion. The aldosterone secretion is stimulated mainly by angiotensin…

Treating Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

I. Heart Failure: What every physician needs to know Whereas heart failure was previously synonymous with pump failure (so-called “systolic heart failure”), it is now known that heart failure can occur in the presence of normal pump function or preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction—the syndrome of “heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF)”, also…

Other Imaging Modalities

General description of procedure, equipment, technique Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is typically subdivided into two major tests: calcium scoring (noncontrast) and CT angiography (contrast). Calcium scoring is typically used for asymptomatic persons for risk stratification and to decide upon further therapies, such as statins, or the intensity of therapy. Calcium scoring is also used for…

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

General description of procedure, equipment, technique The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is increasing in the Western World. Current efforts aim to identify HF at its earliest and preclinical stages to begin treatment and prevent deterioration before the symptoms escalate. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is likely to continue playing an important role in improving diagnostic…

Preventing Heart Failure

I. Heart Failure: What every physician needs to know. Heart failure prevalence continues to increase. Currently over 6 million Americans have heart failure. This is partly related to aging of the population; better care of acute cardiovascular diseases, where now patients survive but with poor cardiac function; and also the worsening risk factor profile in…

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