Howard Maibach

All articles by Howard Maibach

Contact Urticaria Syndrome (Contact Urticaria, Nonimmunologic Contact Urticaria, Immunologic Contact Urticaria, Protein Contact Dermatitis)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Contact urticaria syndrome (CUS) encompasses immediate contact inflammatory reactions that appear within minutes after contact with a substance. What you should be alert for in the history Contact urticaria refers to a wheal and flare reaction and/or eczema following external contact with a substance, usually appearing within 30 minutes…

Irritant Contact Dermatitis (Irritant dermatitis, Cutaneous irritation)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Irritant contact dermatitis is a cutaneous inflammation caused by exposure of an exogenous agent. Endogenous and exogenous factors play a role in the skin barrier disruption and damage to keratinocytes and pro-inflammatory mediator release resulting in a clinical presentation of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis can be further divided into…

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