Christina Chung

All articles by Christina Chung

Supernumerary nipple (polythelia, accessory nipple, third nipple)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? What you should be alert for in the history The supernumerary nipple (SNN) is a common, minor congenital malformation that results in accessory nipples and/or mammary tissue. Most often, a SNN remains undetected and asymptomatic for long periods of time. It is sometimes noted by the patient during periods…

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Stein-Leventhal syndrome, polycystic ovarian disease, functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, ovarian hyperthecosis, sclerocystic ovary syndrome)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) presents with a variable constellation of symptoms. Establishing precise diagnostic criteria has been challenging. In 2003, the Rotterdam Consensus Group defined PCOS by the presence of two out of three of the following factors: oligo- or anovulation, signs of hyperandrogenemia, and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound…

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